master's thesis
Youth labour actions in socialist Yugoslavia

Gorana Jovanović (2017)
University of Pula
Department of Interdisciplinary, Italian and Cultural Studies
Metadata
TitleOmladinske radne akcije u socijalističkoj Jugoslaviji
AuthorGorana Jovanović
Mentor(s)Andrea Matošević (thesis advisor)
Abstract
Jedan od najboljih događaja koje su se ikada dogodile u bivšoj Jugoslaviji su omladinske radne akcije koje prethode današnjem volontiranju i društvenom korisnom radu. Radne akcije su ujedinila dva značajna cilja. Ideja o gradnji pruge koja bi spajala nalazišta ugljena s glavnim prometnicama, postojala je još i prije Drugog svjetskog rata. U prvim poslijeratnim godinama u Jugoslaviji su postojale dvije organizacije koje su okupljale omladinu Narodna omladina Jugoslavije (do 1946. godine Ujedinjeni savez antifašističke omladine Jugoslavije, skraćeno USAOJ) i Savez komunističke omladine Jugoslavije (skraćeno SKOJ). Ove dvije organizacije su se ujedinile 1948. u NOJ, od 1963. godine Savez omladine Jugoslavije, a od 1974. Savez socijalističke omladine Jugoslavije (Dobrivojević, 2014: 30). Organizacija je okupljala mlade od 14 do 25 godina. Nije bilo lako pridobiti svakog mladog čovjeka da se pridruži radnim akcijama. Nakon pada Kraljevine Jugoslavije, 1941. godine, omladina se uključila u prikupljanja zaostaloga oružja poražene vojske. U narednim ratnim godinama formirane su omladinske pozadinske formacije koje su na različite načine pomagale narodu i borcima, a isto se tako i same pripremale za učešća u borbenim odredima (Badovinac 2010: 1). Mladi su tada, pod izuzetno teškim uvjetima, radili na prikupljanju vojne opreme i municije. Tijekom Petogodišnjeg plana koji se odvio od 1947. do 1952., više od milijun mladića i djevojaka je radilo na 70 značajnih objekata. Prva velika savezna radna akcija bila je izgradnja pruge Brčko Banovići (1. svibanj 7. studenog 1946), 60.000 omladinaca su izgradili 90 km pruge. Prugu Šamac Sarajevo je od 1. travnja do 15. studenoga 1947. gradilo oko 217.000 omladinaca. Najveća radna akcija do tad, bila je izgradnja autoputa od Beograda do Zagreba. Radna akcija da bi postigla svoj određeni cilj mora postati samostalna, jer se ona ne može izdavati iz općih uvjeta društvenog života i njegove organizacije. Radila su se ispitivanja među mladima, gdje je pokazalo da su radne akcije njima bile nešto najbolje što im se moglo dogoditi, a dogodilo im se prijateljstvo. Ljubav prema domovini oslanja se odmah na prijateljstvo. Prijateljstvo znači socijalizam i humanizam. Radne akcije su omogućile svima da se sve nacije zbliže iz svih krajeva zemlje. Dobrovoljni omladinski rad je prvenstveno obrazovnog karaktera. Bio je specifičan oblik radnog, idejno - političkog te društveno - kulturnog organiziranja mladih ljudi. Omladinski rad promovirao je nezavisnost i odgovornost mladih ljudi kako bi bili osnaženi da samostalno preuzmu inicijativu te da aktivno sudjeluju u kreiranju osobnih i društvenih promjena. Osim što je bio izvor besplatne radne snage za državu, istovremeno je bio i oblik besplatnog ljetovanja za mlade ljude. Radne akcije su se smatrale školom socijalizma. Mjesto gdje se trebalo njegovati bratstvo jedinstvo. To je bio najbolji način da se narodi iz cijele Jugoslavije upoznaju, a posebno mlađe generacije kao budućnost države, na koje se najviše trebalo utjecati ideološki i politički. U prvom valu velikih saveznih omladinskih radnih akcija omladina Jugoslavije sudjelovala je na 70 dionica. Izgradila je pruge Brčko - Banovići 1946, Šamac - Sarajevo 1947, Banja Luka - Doboj 1951, autoput Beograd - Zagreb 1948 - 1950, Novi Beograd 1947 - 1950 (Selinić, 2007: 119). Više od milijun mladih je sudjelovalo na ovim radnim akcijama. Na autocesti radilo je preko 250 000 mladih. Takmičenje je jedno od osnovnih obilježja slobodne aktivnosti na radnim akcijama. Tako su mladi svoje slobodno vrijeme provodili. U bivšoj Jugoslaviji malo se znalo i pisalo što se tiče negativnog iskustva na samim akcijama. Razne literature i dokumentacije navode samo pozitivne strane. Autor Muhamed Nametak u svom članku Uloga ORA u stvaranju socijalističkog društva u BiH od 1945. do 1952. godine, piše da su se nesreće na radnim akcijama vješto skrivale od očiju javnosti. Kako ne bi ispalo da se država loše brine o svojim omladincima. Radeći intervjue s bivšim akcijašima koji su prisustvovali različitim radnim akcijama, dolazim do zaključka da imaju samo pozitivno mišljenje i iskustvo. Da se njih pita, oni bi se opet vratili na radne akcije. Na radnim akcijama nisu sudjelovali samo dobri učenici i studenti. Bilo je čak i djece koja su poslana na akcije iz popravnog doma. Omladinske radne akcije koje su se odvijale u bivšoj Jugoslaviji ostavile su veliki trag na bivšu državu, sadašnju državu i mlade ljude. Nakon zadnjih akcija koje su bile 90-tih godina prošlog stoljeća možemo reći da su to bile zadnje. Nakon njih ni jedna značajnija radna akcija nije zabilježena. Danas, u Hrvatskoj nema više takvog pristupa, radne akcije su postale volontiranje. Možemo reći da bi današnja mladež bila puno sigurnija u sebe, više cijenila i poštovala rad kad bi se dogodio povratak ORA.
KeywordsYouth Work Actions Yugoslavia brotherhood unity friendship volunteering
Parallel title (English)Youth labour actions in socialist Yugoslavia
Committee MembersFulvio Šuran (committee chairperson)
Andrea Matošević (committee member)
Boris Koroman (committee member)
GranterUniversity of Pula
Lower level organizational unitsDepartment of Interdisciplinary, Italian and Cultural Studies
PlacePula
StateCroatia
Scientific field, discipline, subdisciplineHUMANISTIC SCIENCES
Ethnology and Anthropology
Ethnology
Study programme typeuniversity
Study levelgraduate
Study programmeCulture and Tourism
Academic title abbreviationmag.turism.cult.
Genremaster's thesis
Language Croatian
Defense date2017-12-14
Parallel abstract (English)
One of the best events that had ever occurred in the former Yugoslavia were the youth work actions that preceded today volunteer and community work. The work actions united two significant goals. The idea of building a railroad that would connect the coalfields with the main roads was present even before the World War II. In the early post-war years in Yugoslavia there were two organizations that gathered youth - National Youth of Yugoslavia (until 1946, the United Alliance of Antifascist Youth of Yugoslavia, part USAOJ) and the League of Communist Youth of Yugoslavia (abbreviated Communist Youth). These two organizations were united in 1948 under the known abbreviation NOJ, from 1963 known as the Union of Youth of Yugoslavia, and since 1974. known as the League of Socialist Youth of Yugoslavia (Dobrivojević, 2014: 30). The organization has gathered young people aged between 14 to 25 years. It was not easy to obtain every young man to join the labor camps. After the fall of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, in 1941, young people were involved to collect remained weapons of the defeated army. The upcoming war years formed the background for the youth formations in different ways helping people and soldiers, and at the same time they were preparing themselves for the participation in the combat squads (Badinovac 2010: 1). The youth worked under extremely difficult circumstances collecting military equipment and ammunition. From 1947 to 1952, during the five year plan, more than one million young men and women worked on 70 important facilities. The first major federal labor action was the construction of the railway Brĉko - Banovići (May 1 - November 7, 1946) were 60,000 young people had to build 90 km of railway line. On the other hand for the construction and completition of the railway Šamac Sarajevo, from April 1 to November 15, 1947, was needed 217, 000 young people. The largest labor action until then was the construction of the highway from Belgrade to Zagreb. To achieve their specific purpose working actions had to become independent because they couldn't be issued from the general conditions of social life and it's organization. Research conducted among young people showed that for the workers this actions were the best thing that could happened to them often resulting with new friendships. Friendship means socialism and humanism. Work actions brought together all nations from all parts of the country. Voluntary youth work had primarily an educational character. It was a specific form of labour ideological,political and socio-cultural organization of young people. Besides being a source of free labour force for the country, at the same time it was also a form of free holidays for young people. Labour actions were considered to be schools for socialism, a place where you could cultivate brotherhood and unity. It was the best way to get people from all over Yugoslavia to meet, especially younger generation as the future of the country which were the easisest social group to affect on bouth ideological and political level. The first wave of large federal youth labour actions took part during the 70s. The work actions constructed the railroad Brčko - Banovići 1946, Šamac - Sarajevo in 1947, Banja Luka - Doboj in 1951, Belgrade Zagreb from 1948 to 1950, from 1947 to 1950 Novi Beograd (Selinić, 2007: 119). More than one million young people have participated in these labour camps. On the highway there were over 250 000 young people. Competition was one of the main characteristics of free activities during the working actions, young people spent their free time like that. In the former Yugoslavia, little was known and written regarding negative experiences on the actions themselves. A variety of literature and documentation describes only the positive sides. Author Nametak Muhamed, in his article Role of youth work actions in the creation of a socialist society in Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1945 to 1952 writes that the accidents which happened during the labour actions were skillfully concealed from the public eye otherwise it would appear that the state took poor care of their youngsters. Doing interviews with former activists who attended various operating actions I found out that they have only positive opinion and experiences. If they were asked to join the labour actions again they certainly would. Labour camps did not gather only well behaved persons and good students. There were even children who were sent from the juvenile court. Youth labor actions that took place in the former Yugoslavia left a big mark in the former country and the current states of these young people. The last working actions took place during the 90's and after that no significant labor action took place. If work actions could happen again today's youth would learn to appreciate and respect the work and would be a lot more confident.
Parallel keywords (Croatian)Omladinske radne akcije Jugoslavija bratstvo jedinstvo prijateljstvo volonterstvo
Resource typetext
Access conditionOpen access
Terms of usehttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
URN:NBNhttps://urn.nsk.hr/urn:nbn:hr:137:818361
CommitterVanessa Toić