master's thesis
Jousting Tournaments - a tradition that continues

Branka Starčić (2015)
University of Pula
Metadata
TitleAlkarske igre - tradicija koja se nastavlja
AuthorBranka Starčić
Mentor(s)Slaven Bertoša (thesis advisor)
Abstract
Alkarske igre, igre trčanja i gađanja u metu (prstenac/alku), proizašle su iz srednjovjekovnih viteških turnira. Vrhunac popularnosti doživjele su u 17. stoljeću, kada su se održavale i na području današnje Hrvatske. U Istri tako postoje zapisi o onima u Barbanu i Savičenti, u Dalmaciji su se trčale u Zadru, Makarskoj, Imotskom, Dubrovniku te ona u Sinju koja se trči i danas. Na njima su mogli sudjelovati samo plemići ili bogatiji građani koji su posjedovali konja i potrebnu opremu. Postupnim nestajanjem feudalnog sustava, nestaju i ove igre, s iznimkom barbanske Trke koja je obnovljena i Sinjske alke koja se održava kontinuirano. Zbog svog zabavnog karaktera, takve igre na sebe nisu svraćale veću pozornost svojih suvremenih pisaca, pa su zapisi o njima vrlo oskudni. Oni zapisi koji se uspjeli sačuvati, vrijedni su podaci koji svjedoče o prošlosti ovih natjecanja. Prvi najstariji zapis o Trki na prstenac u Barbanu je iz 1696. Radi se o prijepisu Proglasa koji je tadašnji feudalni gospodar Barbana objavio povodom održavanja slobodnog sajma o blagdanu Duhova. Kako bi privukli što više posjetitelja, organizirana je i Trka na prstenac. Proglasom je utvrđeno osam točaka prema kojima se trka odvija. Na njoj je sudjelovalo deset konjanika, a pobijedio je Ottavio Quellis. Sačuvane su zabilješke o još tri trke, do 1703., kada se gubi pisani trag o ovom natjecanju u Barbanu. Na inicijativu barbanskih aktivista, 1976., prema povijesnim podacima, obnovljena je Trka na prstenac. Od tada se održava svake godine u mjesecu kolovozu. Manifestacija traje tri dana, a započinje u petak podizanjem zastave Društva trka na prstenac. U subotu slijedi niz sportskih događanja i natjecanje u Trki za viticu, koje je ujedno i generalna proba, dok je u nedjelju glavno natjecanje. Petnaest dana ranije počinju se održavati pripreme i kvalifikacije konjanika. Trka se odvija prema Pravilima donesenima 1976., temeljene na onima iz 1696., te prema nadopuni iz 2002. U natjecanju sudjeluje 16 konjanika od 18 do 60 godina starosti, koji su rođeni na području Istre i Liburnije. Od starta do prstenca staza je dugačka 150 metara, a konjanici je moraju prijeći u punom galopu konja u vremenu od 12 sekundi. Konjanici kopljem pokušavaju pogoditi prstenac (metu) koji je obješen na konopcu iznad staze. Prstenac se sastoji od dva koncentrična kruga međusobno povezanih prečkama, tvoreći tako četiri vanjska polja i jedno središnje. Pogodak u sredinu donosi tri boda, polje iznad dva boda, polje ispod jedan bod, polja lijevo i desno pola boda. Pobjednik je onaj koji u tri trke osvoji najviše bodova (punti). Konjanici nose tradicionalnu narodnu nošnju kraja iz kojeg dolaze, moraju imati svu propisanu opremu i svog kopljonošu. Kopljonoše im pomažu oko brige o konjima te na kraju trke prihvaćaju koplje konjanika. Konjanici, kopljonoše, podizači prstenca i članovi Časnog suda, sastavni su dio Trke i povorke koja prije natjecanja prolazi kroz Barban prema trkalištu na Gradišću. U četrdeset godina održavanja, otkako je obnovljena, Trka je postala dio lokalne i regionalne tradicije i jedna od prepoznatljivih turističkih manifestacija Istre. Slično konjičko natjecanje održava se u Sinju, u Cetinskoj krajini. Alka je također natjecanje u kojem alkari pokušavaju pogoditi alku (metu) postavljenu na konopcu preko trkališta. Od svojih početaka Alka se održava u spomen na pobjedu nad Turcima 1715. i u čast Gospe Sinjske koja je prema legendi spasila grad. Najstariji pisani spomen Alke dva su soneta i oda koje je spjevao Julije Bajamonti 1784. Njezin temeljni akt prema kojem se i danas održava, Statut je iz 1833. Njime je propisan čitav tijek priprema za Alku, ceremonije koja se održava na dan Alke, tko su sudionici, kakva im je odora i oprema, ustrojstvo alkarske povorke i tijek natjecanja. Pripreme za Alku započinju petnaest dana ranije, tzv. prove. Dva dana ranije održava se natjecanje za Baru, a dan ranije za Čoju. Obje se igraju prema istim pravilima kao Alka, samo što sudionici ne nose svečane odore. Na dan Alke, svečanost započinje u ranu zoru te se tijekom dana održavaju razna događanja. Prije natjecanja alkari se okupljaju u Alkarskim dvorima, gdje vojvoda izvršava smotru oružja, opreme i ukrasa alkara. Potom se formira alkarska povorka koja kreće prema alkarskom trkalištu. Povorka je jedan od najimpresivnijih dijelova svečanosti, a sastoji se od vojvode, čete alkara, čete momaka i pratnje. Alkari su odjeveni u starinske raskošne odore viših društvenih slojeva. Odore vojvode i alaj-čauša, zapovjednika alkarske čete, bogatije su i raskošnije od ostalih. Alkarski momci obučeni su u starinske narodne nošnje cetinskih seljaka. Konji su također raskošno opremljeni, posebno vojvodin konj i konj edek – jedini konj kojeg nitko ne jaše i koji predstavlja ratni plijen iz 1715. O održavanju i organizaciji Alke brine se Viteško alkarsko društvo u Sinju i jedino njegovi članovi mogu sudjelovati u Alki. Alka se trči svake godine u kolovozu na stazi zvanoj Alkarsko trkalište. U natjecanju sudjeluje 11 – 17 alkara, natjecatelja koji kopljem pokušavaju pogoditi alku. Alka je slična kao barbanski prstenac, ali ima jedno polje manje, tj. vanjski krug pregrađen je s tri prečke. Pogodak u sredinu donosi tri boda, pogodak u polje iznad dva boda, pogodak u jedno od dva donja polja jedan bod. Slavodobitnik je onaj koji u tri trke osvoji najviše bodova. Svojom tradicijom održavanja i prenošenja na mlađe generacije, ove dvije konjičke igre potaknule su i razvoj nekih novih njihovih inačica. Tako se primjerice u Barbanu održava mototrka na prstenac i morska trka, a u Sinju i okolici od davnina se trče dječje Alke, među kojima je najpoznatija Vučkovića dječja alka. Razvojem novih tehnologija, na osnovnoškolskim razinama počela su se nedavno održavati i robotička natjecanja po uzoru na Trku i Alku. Premda imaju mnogo sličnosti, Trka i Alka imaju i poneke razlike. Sličnosti možemo pronaći u sportskom dijelu natjecanja. Na obje je cilj konjanika/alkara pogoditi prstenc/alku i osvojiti što više bodova. Pravila natjecanja su gotovo ista, kao i dužina staze, mjesto na kojem je postavljena meta, izgled trkališta itd. Sustav bodovanja je nešto drugačiji, zbog toga što barbanski prstenac ima jedno polje više od alke. Vrijeme prvog održavanja te najstariji pisani izvori na talijanskom jeziku, također su neke od sličnosti. Njihovu najveću razliku moguće je pronaći u svrsi održavanja. Naime, Trka na prstenac se još u 17. st. održavala u turističke svrhe, a tako je i danas, dok je Sinjska alka utemeljena u spomen na veliku pobjedu nad Turcima 1715. Uz to, jedna od glavnih odlika Alke je njezina ceremonijalnost i formaliziranost, dok je Trka znatno neformalnije uređena. Razlika se uočava i u odorama sudionika. Na Trki su svi sudionici u narodnim nošnjama, a na Alki alkari nose svečane odore viših slojeva društva, dok alkarski momci nose narodne odore. Unatoč svim sličnostima i različitostima, jedna i druga predstavljaju važan dio lokalne i regionalne kulture i tradicijske baštine. Sinjska alka dobila je 2010. međunarodno priznanje svoga značaja, upisom na UNESCO-vu listu svjetske baštine. Trka na prstenac i Sinjska alka vremenom su postale najvažniji događaj u kraju u kojem se održavaju, a po svojim povijesnim tradicijama, pravilima održavanja, svečanostima, odorama i atraktivnosti natjecanja i dio hrvatske kulturne baštine.
Parallel title (English)Jousting Tournaments - a tradition that continues
Committee MembersJasmina Gržinić
Slaven Bertoša
Tea Golja
GranterUniversity of Pula
PlacePula
StateCroatia
Scientific field, discipline, subdisciplineSOCIAL SCIENCES
Economics
Trade and Tourism
Study programme typeuniversity
Study levelgraduate
Study programmeCulture and Tourism
Academic title abbreviationmag.turism.cult.
Genremaster's thesis
Language Croatian
Defense date2015-09-07
Parallel abstract (English)
The jousting tournaments, competitions of running and aiming at the target (the “prstenac”/the “alka”) originated from the medieval knight tournaments. They reached the peak of their popularity in the 17th century, when they were held also in the area of today’s Croatia. In Istria there are records of those in Barban and Savičenta, in Dalmatia were held in Zadar, Makarska, Imotski, Dubrovnik and one in Sinj, which is held still nowadays. In this competitions could take part only aristocrats or wealthy people who owned horses and the necessary equipment. With the gradual disappearance of the feudal system, these competitions started to cease, with the exception of the Barban’s so-called “Trka na prstenac” (Tilting at the ring), which was reestablished, and the “Sinjska Alka” (Alka of Sinj), which has been held continuously. Since the competitions had only entertainment value, they didn’t receive greater attention from its contemporary writers, therefore the records of these are very scarce. The records that have been preserved are a very valuable testimony about their history. The first and the oldest written mention of the Trka na prstenac (Tilting at the ring) in Barban dates from 1696. It is a transcript of the Declaration made by the feudal lord of Barban at the free fair on Pentecost. In order to attract as many visitors as possible, the Trka na prstenac was organized. The Declaration established eight clauses according to which the race would take place. Ten horsemen participated and the winner was Ottavio Quellis. Records of three more competitions are preserved and they were all written until 1703. After that, written records of this event in Barban are lost. According to historical records, in 1976, on the initiative of Barban’s activists, the Trka na prstenac was revived. Since then, it takes place every year in August. The event lasts three days and begins on Friday, when the flag of the Tilting at the ring’s Society is raised. On Saturday a series of sport events are organized, as well as the competition Trka za viticu (Titling at the ringlet), which is also a rehearsal; whereas the main competition takes place on Sunday. The preparations and qualifications of the horseman start fifteen days before. The race takes place according to the rules made in 1976, which are based on those from 1696, as well as to the supplements of these made in 2002. 16 horsemen born in Istria or Liburnia, aged between 18 and 60, participate in the competition. From the start to the prstenac, the racecourse is 150 meters long, and the horsemen have to pass it at full gallop within 12 seconds. The horsemen attempt to hit the prstenac (target) with the spear. The prstenac hangs on a rope above the racecourse and consists of two concentric rings connected by bars, thus forming four outer and one central field. The hit into the centre brings three points, into the upper field two points, into the lower field one point and into the left or right field half a point. The winner is the one who in three races collects most points (“punti”). The horsemen wear traditional folk costumes of the area they come from and they must have all the required equipment and their own spearman. The spearmen help them to take care of the horses and at the end of the race they accept their spear. The horsemen, the spearmen, the persons who lift the prstenac and the members of the Court of Honour are an integral part of the Trka and of the procession, which, before the competition, moves through Barban arriving ultimately at the racecourse in Gradišće. It’s been forty years since the Trka is revived and it has become a part of the local and regional tradition and one of the most recognizable touristic events in Istria. A similar equestrian competition is held in Sinj, in the Cetina region. The Alka is also a competition in which the alkars try to hit the alka (target), which hangs on a rope above the racecourse. From its beginning, the Alka is held to commemorate the victory over the Ottomans in 1715 and in honor of the Madonna of Sinj, who, according to the legend, saved the city. The oldest written records of the Alka are two sonnets and an ode by Julije Bajamonti from 1784. The fundamental document, based on which it takes place today, is a Statute from 1833. This Statute regulates in detail the preparations for the Alka, the ceremony on the day of the competition, who are the participants, what is their uniform and equipment like, the constitution of the procession and process of the competition. The preparations for the Alka, so-called “prove”, start fifteen days before. The competition for the “Bara” is held two days before, and the competition for the “Čoja” a day before. They both have the same rules as the Alka, the only difference is that the competitors don’t wear lavish uniforms. On the Alka day, the ceremony starts at dawn and during the day various events are held. Before the competition, the alkars gather in the Alka Halls, where the Duke checks the weapons, the equipment and the alkars’ outfits. After that, the Alka procession is formed and it heads towards the Alka racecourse. The procession is one of the most impressive parts of the ceremony, and it consists of the Duke, alkar troops and alkars’ squire troops. The alkars are dressed in old-fashioned lavish uniforms of high social classes. The uniforms of the Duke and the “alaj-čauš” (the commander of the alkars’ squire troops) are much more decorated and more lavish than the others. The alkars’ squires wear traditional folk costumes of the peasants of the Cetina region. The horses are also lavishly equipped, especially the horse of the Duke and the “edek” – the only horse without a rider, that represents the war trophy from 1715. The Alka Knights Society in Sinj takes care of the organization and only its members can participate in the Alka. The Alka is held each year in August at the so-called Alka racecourse. In the competition 11 to 17 alkars participate and they try to hit the alka with the spear. The alka is similar to the Barban’s prstenac, but it has one field less, i.e. the outer circle has only three bars. The hit into the centre brings three points, into the upper field two points and the hit into one of the two lower fields one point. The winner is the one who in three races wins most points. These two equestrian competitions, with their tradition of organizing and transmitting to younger generations, have prompted the development of some new variants of them. For example, the “Mototrka na prstenac” (Motorace at the ring) and “Morska trka” (Sea race) are held in Barban, whareas in Sinj and surrounding area, exist since ancient times the “Dječje Alke” (Children’s Alkas), the most famous of which is the Vučkovića dječja Alka (Vučković children’s Alka). The development of new technologies led elementary schools to start organizing robotic competitions similar to the Trka and Alka. Although the Alka and the Trka have many similarities, they also differ in some ways. Similarities can be found in the sport part of the competition. The goal in both competitions is that the horsemen/alkars hit the prstenac/alka and score as many points as possible. The competition rules are quite the same, as well as the length of the racecourse, the location where the target is placed, the aspect of the racetrack and so on. The scoring system is slightly different, because the Barban’s prstenac has a field more than the alka. Other similarities are the first time when they were held and the fact that the oldest written records of them are in Italian. The biggest difference between the two is their purpose: namely the Trka na prstenac was held in the 17th century for touristic purposes, and so it is today, the Alka on the other hand was established in memory of the great victory over the Ottomans in 1715. In addition, one of the main features of the Alka is her ceremonial and formal quality, whereas the Trka is much more informally organized. A difference is noticeable in the uniforms of the participants, too. In the Trka all participants wear traditional folk costumes, whereas in the Alka the alkars wear lavish uniforms of high social classes and the alkars’ squires wear traditional uniforms. Despite all the similarities and differences, both are an important part of the local and regional culture and of the traditional heritage. In 2010, the Sinjska Alka received the international recognition of her importance and was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List. The Trka na prstenac and the Sinjska Alka became in the course of time the most important events in the area where they are held, and for their historical traditions, rules, ceremonies, costumes and attractiveness of the competition a part of the Croatian cultural heritage, too.
Parallel keywords (Croatian)alkarske igre trka na prstenac sinjska alka
Resource typetext
Access conditionOpen access
Terms of usehttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
URN:NBNhttps://urn.nsk.hr/urn:nbn:hr:137:659577
CommitterBarbara Dušan